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|MARCH 2018 FEATURE ARTICLES - THESE ARE OPEN ACCESS FOR A LIMITED TIME|
Safe, stable, and efficient operation of nuclear reactors is very necessary for the development of nuclear power industry. During the course of its operation, a nuclear reactor is subjected to many intentional or unintentional perturbations which tend to change the rector power from its steady operating value. Power-level regulation is a significant technique for guaranteeing both operation stability and efficiency of nuclear reactors. Therefore, thorough stability analysis of power control loop is necessary to demonstrate its ability to withstand the reactivity perturbations. In this paper, the stability of the total power control loop of a large pressurised heavy water reactor is investigated in discrete-time domain by linearizing the system around its equilibrium points and identifying eigenvalues of the closed-loop system. The dynamics of the system vary widely depending on factors such as operating power levels, core-fuelling states and cycle time of reactor regulating system. Hence, the input to the stability analysis are these system parameters and the output is a stability characterization in terms of the stability regions shown in GP (total power control gain)-GH (level tilt gain) plane. The results quantify the influence of these system parameters on the stability of the total power control loop. more...
Optically read out time projection chambers (TPCs) based on gaseous electron multipliers (GEMs) combine 3-D event reconstruction capabilities with high spatial resolution and charge amplification factors. The approach of reconstructing particle tracks from 2-D projections obtained with imaging sensors and depth information from photomultiplier tubes is limited to specific cases such as straight particle trajectories. A combination of optical and electronic readout realized by a semitransparent anode placed between a triple-GEM stack and a camera in an optically read out TPC has been realized and used to reconstruct more complex particle tracks. High spatial resolution 2-D projections combined with a low number of charge readout channels enable accurate 3-D event topology reconstruction. Straight alpha tracks as well as more complex cosmic events have been reconstructed with the presented readout concept. Relative depth information from electronically read out charge signals has been combined with drift time information between primary and secondary scintillation pulses to absolute alpha track reconstructions. more...
Utopia: A Nine Decade Femtoampere Sensitivity Current Digitizer and its Application in Ionizing Radiation Monitoringby Evgenia Voulgari, Matthew Noy, Francis Anghinolfi, François Krummenacher, and Maher Kayal
Radiation measurements and monitoring are very important for particle physics accelerators, hadron therapy institutes, and nuclear facilities. An Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) able to digitize current generated from ionization chambers was designed and characterized in order to be used as the front-end of the new radiation monitoring system at CERN. The design of the Utopia 2 ASIC was motivated by the need to measure input currents as low as 2 fA and over a wide dynamic range of 9 decades. This paper presents the challenges, the design procedure, the architecture, and the measurement results of the front-end that was fabricated in AMS 0.35-μm technology. The main limitation was related to the leakage currents that are injected into the input of the ASIC from various sources and are added to the signal of the detector. By active leakage current compensation, the ASIC can measure current down to 1 fA, and by introducing a multiple range architecture, the ASIC can digitize current up to 5 μA. more...
A PUBLICATION OF THE IEEE NUCLEAR AND PLASMA SCIENCES SOCIETY
|MARCH 2018 | VOLUME 65 | NUMBER 3 | IETNAE | (SSN 0018-9499)|
NUCLEAR POWER INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL
Stability Analysis of Total Power Control Loop of Large PHWRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T. U. Bhatt, C. S. Subudhi, and A. P. Tiwari
Optimal Fault Classification Using Fisher Discriminant Analysis in the Parity Space for Applications to NPPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S. Cho and J. Jiang
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