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Near-threshold computing and scaling are combined to operate SRAMs in regions where they are close to being unstable. One consequence of this is an increase in single event upsets (SEUs), due to the minimal charge stored on nodes during reduced voltage operation. In this paper, both modeling and measurements [with heavy ions, MeV and low energy protons (LEPs)] are reported for a 32-nm silicon on insulator SRAM, over a range of 0.4-1.05 V. The results show that the SEU rate increases by 3X at low-supply voltages, where very LEPs are able to upset these devices. This can be a reliability concern when running SRAMs at near-threshold voltages in LEP space environments. more...
Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is gaining widespread use in various medical and industrial applications but suffers from substantially larger amount of scatter than that in the conventional diagnostic CT resulting in relatively poor image quality. Various methods that can reduce and/or correct for the scatter in the CBCT have therefore been developed. Scatter correction method that uses a beam-blocker has been considered a direct measurement-based approach providing accurate scatter estimation from the data in the shadows of the beam-blocker. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no record reporting the significance of the scatter from the beam-blocker itself in such correction methods. In this paper, we identified the scatter from the beam-blocker that is detected in the object-free projection data investigated its influence on the image accuracy of CBCT reconstructed images, and developed a scatter correction scheme that takes care of this scatter as well as the scatter from the scanned object. more...
Radiation detection used in positron emission tomography (PET) exploits the timing information to remove background noise and refine position measurement through time-of-flight information. Fine time resolution in the order of 10 ps full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) would not only improve contrast in the image, but would also enable direct image reconstruction without iterative or back-projected algorithms. Currently, PET experimental setups based on silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) reach 73 ps FWHM, where the scintillation process plays the larger role in spreading the timing resolution. This will change with the optimization of faster light emission mechanisms (prompt photons), where readout optoelectronics will once more have a noticeable contribution to the timing resolution limit. In addition to reducing electronic jitter as much as possible, other aspects of the design space must also explored, especially for digital SiPMs. Unlike traditional SiPMs, digital SiPMs can integrate circuits like time-to-digital converters (TDCs) directly with individual or groups of light sensing cells. Designers should consider the number of TDCs to integrate, the area they occupy, their power consumption, their resolution, and the impact of signal processing algorithms and find a compromise with the figure of merit and the coincidence timing resolution (CTR). This paper presents a parametric simulation flow for digital SiPM microsystems that evaluates CTR based on these aspects and on the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) in order to guide their design for present and future PET systems. For a small 1.1 × 1.1 × 3.0 mm3 LYSO crystal, the simulations indicate that for a low jitter digital SiPM microsystem with 18.2% photon detection efficiency, fewer than four timestamps with any multi-TDC configuration scheme nearly obtain the optimal CTR with BLUE (just below 100 ps FWHM), but with limited 5% improvement over only using the first observed photon. On the other hand, if a similar crystal but with 2.5% prompt photon 80% and 200% (depending on electronic jitter) over using only the first observed photon. In this case, a few tens of timestamps are required, yielding very different design guidelines than for standard LYSO scintillators. more...
A PUBLICATION OF THE IEEE NUCLEAR AND PLASMA SCIENCES SOCIETY
|MARCH 2017 | VOLUME 64 | NUMBER 3 | IETNAE | (SSN 0018-9499)|
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